Weight Loss Surgery
Weight Loss Surgery is also called, Bariatric surgery, Bypass surgery, Gastric banding, Obesity surgery and limits the amount of food you can take in. Some operations also restrict the amount of food you can digest. Many people who have the surgery lose weight quickly. If you follow diet and exercise recommendations, you can keep most of the weight off. The surgery has risks and complications, however, including infections, hernias and blood clots.
What are the weight loss surgery alternatives?
There are 4 types of weight loss operations that are commonly offered in the United States: adjustable gastric band (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch (BPD-DS), and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). Each has its own benefits and risks. To select the option that is best for you, you and your physician will consider that operation’s benefits and risks along with many other factors, including BMI, eating behaviors, obesity-related health conditions, and previous operations.
Adjustable Gastric Band
AGB works primarily by decreasing food intake. Food intake is limited by placing a small bracelet-like band around the top of the stomach to produce a small pouch about the size of a thumb. The outlet size is controlled by a circular balloon inside the band that can be inflated or deflated with saline solution to meet the needs of the patient.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
RYGB works by restricting food intake and by decreasing the absorption of food. Food intake is limited by a small pouch that is similar in size to the adjustable gastric band. In addition, absorption of food in the digestive tract is reduced by excluding most of the stomach, duodenum, and upper intestine from contact with food by routing food directly from the pouch into the small intestine.
Biliopancreatic Diversion With a Duodenal Switch
BPD-DS, usually referred to as a “duodenal switch,” is a complex bariatric operation that principally includes 1) removing a large portion of the stomach to promote smaller meal sizes, 2) re-routing of food away from much of the small intestine to partially prevent absorption of food, and 3) re-routing of bile and other digestive juices which impair digestion.
In removing a large portion of the stomach, a more tubular “gastric sleeve” (also known as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy, or VSG) is created.
The smaller stomach sleeve remains connected to a very short segment of the duodenum, which is then directly connected to a lower part of the small intestine. This operation leaves a small portion of the duodenum available for food and the absorption of some vitamins and minerals.
However, food that is eaten by the patient bypasses the majority of the duodenum. The distance between the stomach and colon is made much shorter after this operation, thus promoting malabsorption. BPD-DS produces significant weight loss. However, there is greater risk of long-term complications because of decreased absorption of food, vitamins, and minerals.
Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy
VSG historically had been performed only as the first stage of BPD-DS (see above) in patients who may be at high risk for complications from more extensive types of surgery. These patients’ high risk levels are due to body weight or medical conditions. However, more recent information indicates that some patients who undergo a VSG can actually lose significant weight with VSG alone and avoid a second procedure. It is not yet known how many patients who undergo VSG alone will need a second stage procedure. A VSG operation restricts food intake and does not lead to decreased absorption of food. However, most of the stomach is removed, which may decrease production of a hormone called ghrelin. A decreased amount of ghrelin may reduce hunger more than other purely restrictive operations, such as gastric band.